This catalogue of the Cholevinae subfamily of Leiodidae can be considered a complement and taxonomic update of Volume 31 of the series Fauna Ibérica (Salgado et al., 2008). Its main aim is to bring together the distribution data published from 1833 to 2016 with the aim of providing a work tool that facilitates access to information for researchers. Its possible uses are numerous in combination with other disciplines: biogeography and phylogeography, studies on dispersion and speciation phenomena, on evolutionary processes and mechanisms, study of paleoclimates and geological events, climate change and also helping the identification of areas of a high value for conservation. Numerous previously unpublished distribution data are included that originate from different entomological archives, public and private alike. For each taxon, a list of synonyms and combinations is given, with a transcription of the typical locality, distribution data with references that mention it globally, as well as distribution data detailed by province, municipal district or town, locality, complementary data (coordinates, altitude, etc.), collection date, collector, number of specimens, deposit and bibliographic references. This information is complemented with distribution maps of each endemic genus and of each species. Considerations are made regarding the conservation of species and the protection of habitats, as well as a list of those that are legally protected or that are included on Spain–wide or autonomous community red lists.In the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands, over 182 years and in 150 publications, 275 names of specific or inferior range have been described, of which 219 are currently considered valid names. Currently known in these territories are 47 genera, 223 species and 37 subspecies; 190 species or subspecies are hypogean, 21 endogean, five myrmecophiles and 43 epigeous (folivorous, necrophagous, corticolous or saproxylic). The set of Iberian Cholevinae fauna, excluding Leptodirini, should be associated with that of the rest of Europe: 26 trans–Pyrenean elements, 10 meridional, one trans–Iberian and 18 endemisms. The quantity of endemisms is significant although no clearly predominant distribution pattern has been found. The Leptodirini are all endemic, their distribution areas very small and they have 35 genera, 171 species and 33 subspecies; their distribution is as follows: clades of «Quaestus» and «Speonomidius», Cantabrian District; clade of «Bathysciola zariquieyi» + clade of «Speonomus» in pars, Catalan District; clade of «Spelaeochlamys», Levantine District; clade of “Speonomus» in pars + Bathysciola of the «schiodtei» groups in pars, «lapidicola», «meridionalis» and clade of «Bathysciola ovata», Pyrenean District; clade of «Speocharidius» including Bathysciola from the group «schiodtei» in pars, Basque District. The process of formation of the different clades is related with geological and paleo–climatic events with their origins dating from between the middle Eocene and the late Oligocene. The paleo–climatic events that took place between the Miocene and the present day have been used to explain the dispersion and diversification of these clades. The Ibero–Balearic cholevine fauna is one of the richest in the Palearctic region, while the Pyrenean, Basque and Cantabrian biospeleological districts present one of the highest densities of troglobiomorphic (hypogean and endogean) coleopters in the world and, moreover, the hypogean cholevines are the zoological group with the greatest presence in the Iberian peninsula with one of the highest rates of endemic elements.
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